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"The foundry industry" 13th Five-Year "technology development
Release date:2014-02-17 Clicks:344 Article author:

"12th Five-Year" period, China has made remarkable achievements in the foundry technology innovation, industry progress etc.. In 2014 China's total output of castings reached 46 million 200 thousand tons, representing an increase of 3.8% in 2013 44 million 500 thousand tons, in the world for 15 consecutive years of casting production superpower. But yet to solve China's foundry industry "big but not strong", on the one hand, a large number of low-end export castings at the same time, still need to import a large number of high-end casting products; on the other hand, the major technical equipment in national key construction projects need the development process, due to the blockade of foreign technology, often become the key casting the bottleneck restricting the development of related fields.


"13th Five-Year" period is the further implementation of innovation driven development strategy key period of accelerating the construction of innovative country. For the foundry industry play an important role in the equipment manufacturing industry, is an important opportunity for technology to enhance industrial transformation and enhance the core competitiveness of the. In order to clearly understand the development trend of international casting technology, planning casting technology development direction, according to the "national long-term science and technology development plan (2006-2020)", "13th Five-Year" "National Science and technology development plan" and "Chinese manufacturing 2025" proposed objectives and tasks, combined with the casting industry technology development in China. The "foundry" 13th Five-Year "technology development plan" (hereinafter referred to as the "Outline").


The "Outline" is composed of 18 parts: cast steel, cast iron, nonferrous alloy casting, casting metal matrix composites, casting wear-resistant materials, rapid casting, investment casting, die casting, gravity casting, extrusion casting, die casting, numerical simulation, network manufacturing and other materials, casting equipment and testing technology, and environmental protection safety, automobile castings, casting standard. The content of the 13 "planning outline" in the field of "2025" China manufacturing involves all five major projects, covering 8 areas of high-end equipment innovation project in the field of 10.


The "Outline" combined with the development of casting technology at home and abroad, combined with the development of hot issues and development of casting technology China demand, points out the development goal and development priorities, proposed the project and key technology development. The "Outline" highlights the strategic and macro, pertinence and maneuverability, can be used as a guide to Chinese foundry industry technology development cast 2016 - 2020.


The eighth chapter mainly introduces the die casting technology development planning, hereby excerpt, for readers.


1 the domestic and foreign development situation and development trend


1.1 development status and development trend of domestic

Die casting is casting metal heat processing technology in the wide application, the fastest method of forming process. Die casting is an advanced non-ferrous alloy precision parts forming technology, adapt to the modern manufacturing complex products and precision, light weight, energy saving, green requirements, its products have been across the automotive, machinery, home appliances, communications, hardware and many other fields.


The casting started in 1950s, 30 years before the annual growth rate of more than 10%. Since 1990, more than 15% annual growth in 2012 production reached 3 million 180 thousand tons. After years of efforts, China has built up a complete die casting industry and the supporting industry chain and some more developed die casting industry base, the world's largest production, to become the world's superpower die.


1.1.1 casting alloy

The main die casting alloy materials in non-ferrous metal and alloy, die casting Aluminum Alloy most outstanding amount. In addition to our traditional die-casting Aluminum Alloy range expansion of foreign forces and a test using new technology of die casting to produce high mechanical properties in some deformation Aluminum Alloy, and special Aluminum Alloy automotive structural parts are needed at the beginning of the domestic die casting production. Further research on the materials and properties of die casting magnesium alloy, to further increase the application and development of automotive magnesium alloy die castings. International advanced countries in research and application of high silicon Aluminum Alloy, Aluminum Alloy, special structure than the leading domestic more research with a domestic magnesium alloy. In addition, the study on the basic material than domestic more widely and deeply, and remarkable achievements in this regard, the domestic investment is small.Zinc alloy die casting production gradually reduced, mostly small and medium parts. Copper alloy casting production of small, medium and small parts more. The black metal and alloy die casting in China and abroad are similar, but the development at home and abroad has long period near standstill.


1.1.2 die casting equipment

The rapid development of automobile industry, large and high-end castings increased demand, promote the domestic die casting machine technology, high pressure injection speed, short construction time, real time pressure control injection system, 4000 t large die casting machine, automatic peripheral equipment and casting unit continued land market, and narrow the gap between foreign advanced the gap between equipment. But the domestic equipment seal durability, repeatability and accuracy of foreign advanced equipment, there is a large gap in stability. Two large machines to occupy the domestic market, has brought great impact to the traditional die-casting machine market, some domestic manufacturers have started to develop two machines.Magnesium alloy die-casting machine and foreign large gap, most rely on imports. In the automatic die casting machine integration of domestic manufacturers began to get involved, but the supporting resources and processing means and advanced manufacturers there is no small gap. In recent years, the domestic independent research and development of die casting and extrusion casting dual-use equipment, has become a new model on the innovation of international.


Die casting die 1.1.3

With the rapid development of domestic die-casting molds die casting professional, has made great progress. Develop and manufacture and market of the engine block, gearbox as the representative of the complex precision mold use, laid the status of domestic manufacturers. In the mold design, simulation and analysis software used widely, but lack the excellent designer rich craft skills and experience, mold export advantage is not strong. Mold processing method (equipment) and means have been gradually and international, the gap is narrowing, but sophisticated processing equipment mostly rely on imports. Die steel material is required to establish the status of domestic materials in the industry. In addition, in the mold materials and heat treatment technology, improve the service life of the mould, mold cooling technology, means of mould surface treatment technology, mold to automation and increase the production efficiency and reduce the fault and other issues, also need to increase research and development efforts and investment.


1.1.4 die casting process

Experimental study on casting properties, physical properties and application conditions of all kinds of casting alloy materials has made great progress than in the past, especially the research of magnesium alloy is more thorough, the study of the mechanical structure of alloy increased investment. Die casting machine control system more perfect and easy to use, speed, pressure, displacement, temperature, cooling and demoulding agent, set and adjust the parameters conveniently and quickly. But compared with foreign countries, the set point (section) and gap, experimental study on overflow, pouring, filling, vacuum system is not enough. Internationally, in die casting technology appeared many new changes, such as local extrusion technology, cold and local super cooling and low-speed casting, semi-solid die casting, mold surface laser welding technology, has a great effect on the industry. The alloy and die casting process has completed the preparation of the national standard, but on the basis of data test standards are not sufficient and detailed.


1.1.5 die casting quality control and detection technology

Die casting quality control and detection technology has been more and more attention in the production of enterprises, many enterprises with the analysis and testing of materials from spectral density and density index, metallographic examination, mechanical properties, to product testing X test, CT test, light industrial size and finish testing, cleanliness testing, seal testing, porosity test the domestic or imported instruments and equipment, improve the ability and level of die casting professional overall detection. Supporting the downstream process in the service of professional casting such as heat treatment, shot blasting, surface treatment and coating, infiltration, auxiliary materials have made great development and improvement.


Energy saving and environmental protection 1.1.6 die casting operation

Die casting production process of large energy consumption. In addition to the use of electric melting alloy, as well as oil, gas or fuel. At present, the domestic die casting machine and melting furnace has good energy-saving effect to market supply.Die casting production belongs to hot work, it is important to sunstroke. In the production process will produce industrial pollutants, need to be comprehensive management. Some domestic die casting enterprises have taken measures, mainly from the waste gas and smoke to start treatment, waste oil and waste water.


1.2 the current situation and development trend of foreign

Foreign key for lightweight automotive parts, new technology development and production of high-quality automotive Aluminum Alloy die-casting alternative steel materials. This kind of pressure casting die casting technology can break through the traditional restrictions, heat treatment and welding, high elongation and enough strength. Typical parts include shock absorption tower, chassis parts, door frame, subframe, space support and automatic transmission etc.. Study on materials and processes of Aluminum Alloy die casting has been in an important position, rapid development, wide market application. Foreign Aluminum Alloy die casting can eliminate internal porosity, T6 heat treatment and welding, the elongation can reach more than 10%, the tensile strength can reach above 210 MPa. Foreign die casting production efficiency is high, such as automobile four cylinder casting can reach 150 thousand / year. High performance injection system, real-time control technology and two template clamping system is an important manifestation of the current advanced casting equipment. Stable performance of large die casting equipment, mature technology.


1.3 the gap at home and abroad

At present, Chinese die casting industry in the high-end equipment, casting material properties, casting quality, development and design, mold intelligent degree and production efficiency etc. all have a wide gap with foreign countries.

(1) the competitiveness of enterprises is not strong, the lack of technical strength;

(2) research project investment is not enough, the establishment and the actual need is not close;

(3) the popularization and application of advanced technology is not universal;

(4) domestic die casting equipment parameters and accuracy as well as the gap between. In the large die casting machine (2000 tons) of the design and manufacture of the gap with foreign countries is larger, mainly reflected in the stability of the equipment and injection performance etc..


The 1.4 problem analysis and solution

From the gap, the main problems are: lack of professional and technical personnel and production operators; relevant aspects of the whole industry casting not related to each other, the industry chain is not tight enough; for the foreign advanced technology, domestic enterprises do not have the ability to accept more. Therefore, need to vigorously promote the die-casting production automation and intellectualization, create a good production environment. To attract more practitioners, intensify the training of professional talents; according to our national conditions and ability to choose suitable project.


2 development goals

The overall development goals, with the "2025" - Chinese manufacturing, construction of die casting die casting enterprises to enter the country, to the "high-end, intelligent, outgoing and service-oriented", and the emergence of a number of high-end die casting equipment and die casting production enterprises.

(1) test to carry out advanced casting process technology;

(2) move to a high melting point metal casting;

(3) to promote the development of semi-solid processing technology, expanding the processing of composite materials;

(4) the establishment of casting operation station.


The 3 focus of development

3.1 technical route

(1) through the realization of project achievements, as a demonstration of the replicability of the benchmark, establishment of incubators;

(2) the establishment of production design and development team, participate in the upstream customers design, make it possible to adapt to the casting process of products, application of rapid prototyping technology and 3D printing technology in product design, design and development of die casting technology of thin wall and thick wall pressure casting;

(3) the development of Aluminum Alloy thin-walled parts die casting technology, together with the automobile industry, designed by China, followed by each link, based on domestic first, if necessary by foreign supporting.


Study on the technology of 3.2

Research on 3.2.1 technologies

(1) thin-walled structure design and die casting technology;

(2) experimental research and development of automatic control technology, prolongs the service life of the mould is suitable with the high precision complex mold manufacturing technology, mold temperature;

(3) on the promotion of filling simulation technology, die casting, die casting gate technology parameter optimization and selection, mold defects, thermal analysis;

(4) high performance, high reliability and high precision automatic die casting machine unit and equipment research and development, combined with a number of high-end die casting technology.


Research on the key technology of 3.2.2

(1) the research and application of die casting technology and die casting process based special technology. Such as vacuum die-casting, semi-solid die casting, slow injection technology, pre filled die casting technology, core technology, salt structure (double vacuum), extrusion casting, partial pressurization technology etc.;

(2) die casting alloy and smelting technology. To further enhance the performance and use performance test of die casting non-ferrous alloy materials, the development of new varieties of alloy, such as composite materials, structure of alloy material, high ductility materials, improve product development and application of smelting equipment thermal efficiency;

(3) high performance and reliability of automatic die casting machine and ancillary equipment research and development. The development and application of automatic control system of high reliability real-time controlled injection system and the parameters of the application of integrated automation technology of all ancillary equipment, to adapt to the development of die casting equipment to promote a variety of advanced technology;

(4) the development of sophisticated mould manufacturing technology. Efficient cooling technology, mold material improvement and development of new steel, automatic control technology and equipment, mold temperature, experimental research and promotion methods of prolonging service life of the mold, the mold surface treatment technology;

(5) die casting simulation technology research and promotion. Such as metal filling, speed, pressure, temperature, solidification, defects (porosity, shrinkage), thermal analysis (mold surface temperature field and temperature gradient); optimization and selection of die casting parameters.


4 key projects

In order to achieve the development goal of "13th Five-Year", recommended the creation of the project:

(1) the real-time control of high-grade die casting equipment, die casting machine (CNC) die-casting unit injection system and automatic robot;

(2) the development of Aluminum Alloy thin-walled part die-casting technical equipment and automobile industry to implement production, learning and research, with the combination of;

(3) - green casting enterprise can copy the establishment of demonstration.

5 policy recommendations

(1) in environmental governance, give appropriate policy support;

(2) conditions, can be made of alloy smelting, reduce energy consumption and pollutant emissions, the country should appropriate relief in tax or subsidy;

(3) to strengthen the research of die casting technology based on professional investment, slow support, to establish research institutions focus on research and promotion;

(4) the statistical work of industry norms, stop disorderly blind, statistics released.